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  • RSS BBC News – Africa

    • South Sudan treason charges dropped April 24, 2014
      South Sudan withdraws charges against four top politicians accused of the alleged coup plot that triggered the civil war.
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      Kenyan MPs propose making it a criminal offence to address an official incorrectly, the latest move in a status struggle with newly created governors.
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      Four people, two of them police, are killed in the Kenyan capital Nairobi by a car bomb outside a police station.
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      A senior Egyptian police officer has been killed by a bomb blast in the capital, Cairo, officials say.
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      South Africa's public broadcaster says it refused to broadcast an advert from the controversial politician Julius Malema, saying it incited violence.
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      Islamist militants in Mali say French hostage Gilberto Rodrigues Leal, who was kidnapped in 2012, is dead.
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      A woman, originally from South Africa, is arrested after three children are found dead at a house in south London.
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      A Jewish lawyer in Morocco challenges the political establishment by asking to join the ruling Islamist PJD party, it is reported.
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      As Kenyan actress Lupita Nyong'o is named the world's most beautiful person a new documentary explores the beauty debate from an African perspective.
    • VIDEO: Ethiopia's Jewish community divided April 24, 2014
      Thousands of Ethiopian Jews have been left disappointed by an Israeli government decision to end a 30-year-old programme that saw tens thousands of Ethiopian Jews airlifted to the Holy Land.
    • VIDEO: Deadly car bomb strikes Nairobi April 24, 2014
      A car bomb has exploded outside a police station in the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, killing four people.
    • VIDEO: Horror of S Sudan massacre filmed April 23, 2014
      The White House has strongly condemned the massacre of civilians in South Sudan calling it a betrayal of the people by their leaders.
    • VIDEO: Grim journey through 'new Rwanda' April 22, 2014
      The United Nations says the on-going conflict in South Sudan has a disturbing echo of events in Rwanda 20 years ago.
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    • Netanyahu: Abbas must end Hamas pact April 24, 2014
      Israeli PM Netanyahu tells the BBC Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas must abandon his pact with Hamas if he wants peace talks to resume.
    • Mother charged with three murders April 24, 2014
      A mother is charged with murdering three of her children who were found dead at their home in south-west London.
    • Ukraine raids spark war of words April 24, 2014
      Russia and the US accuse each other of failing to de-escalate the crisis in Ukraine, following raids by Kiev on pro-Russian separatists in the east.
    • Probe over Hillsborough insult posts April 24, 2014
      The government says it is making "urgent inquiries" into reports Whitehall computers were used to make insulting comments about the Hillsborough disaster.
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      A convicted paedophile abused children at a private school in London where he taught, its chair of governors confirms.
    • Barclays wins pay package vote April 24, 2014
      Barclays shareholders vote to approve the bank's remuneration package, which includes higher bonuses despite a 30% fall in profits.
    • Firefighters to stage fresh strikes April 24, 2014
      Firefighters in England and Wales are to stage strikes on 2, 3 and 4 May over a long-running pensions row, the Fire Brigades Union says.
    • Post Office staff agree pay deal April 24, 2014
      The postal union, the CWU, says it's secured a pay deal covering more than 3,000 staff at Crown Post Offices worth up to 7.3% over 3 years.
    • Terrorism financing suspect arrested April 24, 2014
      Officers from the Metropolitan Police arrest a man in London on suspicion of financing and encouragement of terrorism.
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      Formula 1 boss Bernie Ecclestone denies charges of bribery at the start of his trial in Munich and says he will fight to clear his name.
    • Cyber gang leader jailed for scam April 24, 2014
      The leader of a gang which stole £1.25m from two of Britain's major banks in a "sophisticated and organised" cyber attack, is jailed for five-and-a-half years.
    • BBC suspends its CBI membership April 24, 2014
      The BBC announces it is to suspend its membership of the employers' organisation the CBI during the Scottish independence referendum campaign.
    • Treats in moderation make kids happy April 24, 2014
      Seven-year-olds are happier when they are allowed sweets, snacks and television in moderation, suggests a study of children's well-being.
    • Warhol works found on Amiga disks April 24, 2014
      A dozen previously unknown works created by Andy Warhol have been recovered from 30-year-old Amiga disks.
    • Ramires to miss rest of league season April 24, 2014
      Chelsea midfielder Ramires accepts the Football Association's charge of violent conduct for fracas in defeat to Sunderland.
    • Champion O'Sullivan trails Perry April 24, 2014
      Ronnie O'Sullivan trails Joe Perry 5-3 after the first session of their second-round match at the World Snooker Championship.
    • Klopp rules out Man Utd switch April 24, 2014
      Borussia Dortmund boss Jurgen Klopp rules himself out of contention to become the next manager of Manchester United.
    • Rangers great Jardine dies aged 65 April 24, 2014
      Former Rangers, Hearts and Scotland defender Sandy Jardine dies aged 65 following a battle with cancer.
    • Home nations in Euro 2020 scrap - SFA April 24, 2014
      Scotland will need to beat their closest neighbours if Glasgow is to be a Euro 2020 host city, says SFA chief Stewart Regan.
    • Labour to cut ties with Co-op Bank April 24, 2014
      The Labour Party is looking to sever its links with the troubled Co-op Bank, bringing to an end one of the oldest political partnerships in the UK.
  • RSS Reuters: Politics

    • Senate panel to vote on Fischer, other Fed nominees on Tuesday April 24, 2014
      NEW YORK/WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Senate Banking Committee will vote next week on three nominees to the Federal Reserve's board, including Stanley Fischer for vice chairman, in a big step toward bulking up the U.S. central bank's depleted ranks.
    • Obama administration may unveil new deportation policy in two stages April 24, 2014
      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The White House is considering small steps in the near term to ease the threat of deportation for some undocumented immigrants, but advocates in communication with the administration expect President Barack Obama to make bigger changes later in the year.
    • Conservative group pulls photo of Colorado theater massacre from attack ad April 24, 2014
      DENVER (Reuters) - A conservative advocacy group has pulled a photograph used in an attack ad against Democratic Senator Mark Udall that depicted him with a grim-faced President Barack Obama in the aftermath of the Colorado theater massacre, after victims' families complained.
    • Judge strikes down NY limits on donations to 'super PACs' April 24, 2014
      NEW YORK (Reuters) - A federal judge on Thursday reluctantly struck down New York's limits on donations to independent political action committees as unconstitutional, potentially ushering in a new era of "super PACs" in state campaigns.
    • Michelle Obama changes Kansas speech date after students protest April 24, 2014
      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - First lady Michelle Obama has switched her plans to address a high school commencement ceremony in Topeka, Kansas, in May after students protested that her presence would limit the number of family members they could invite to the ceremony.
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      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. lawmakers should back a bill renewing the U.S. Export-Import Bank's charter and stop playing "political games" that will only hurt American exports and jobs, the bank's president said on Thursday.
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      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Senate Banking Committee appears likely to back a bill to wind down government-backed mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, according to sources familiar with talks on the legislation.
    • Caroline Kennedy backs Hillary Clinton for 2016 April 24, 2014
      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Caroline Kennedy, the current U.S. ambassador to Japan, says she would support Hillary Clinton if the former secretary of state seeks the presidency in 2016, and she hopes Clinton decides to run.
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      TOKYO (Reuters) - U.S. President Barack Obama assured ally Japan on Thursday that Washington was committed to its defense, including of tiny isles at the heart of a row with China, but denied he had drawn any new "red line" and urged peaceful dialogue over the islands.
    • Mississippi sets 20-week limit on abortions April 24, 2014
      (Reuters) - Mississippi will ban abortions after more than 20 weeks of pregnancy from July, joining other conservative U.S. states that have placed restrictions on the procedure.
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      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Some of them have been locked up for a dozen years. Some are suspected fighters from Yemen, Russia or Pakistan, arrested by U.S. forces in Afghanistan or elsewhere. Several have been linked to al Qaeda.
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      TOKYO (Reuters) - President Barack Obama will use a state visit to Japan on Thursday to try to reassure Tokyo and other Asian allies of his commitment to ramping up U.S. engagement in the region, despite Chinese complaints that Washington's real aim is to contain Beijing's rise.
    • Pentagon dossier to detail secretive U.S. Afghan detainee policy April 23, 2014
      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Some of them have been locked up for a dozen years. Some are suspected fighters from Yemen, Russia or Pakistan, arrested by U.S. forces in Afghanistan or elsewhere. Several have been linked to al Qaeda.
    • Exclusive: White House considers former banking lawyer for Fed board - sources April 23, 2014
      NEW YORK/WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A former lawyer with the American Bankers Association is being considered by the White House as a possible nominee to the board of the Federal Reserve, according to sources familiar with the efforts
    • Vote delayed on loan guarantee for World Trade Center developer April 23, 2014
      NEW YORK (Reuters) - The board of the Port Authority of New York & New Jersey on Wednesday delayed a scheduled vote on whether to provide $1.2 billion in loan guarantees to World Trade Center developer Larry Silverstein, the latest holdup for the project.
    • Democratic governors challenge Connecticut campaign finance law April 23, 2014
      (Reuters) - The U.S. Democratic Governors' Association on Wednesday sued the state of Connecticut, saying its laws on political spending are unconstitutionally broad and limit the ability of political groups to buy independent ads backing candidates.
    • Hagel begins first trip to Latin America as U.S. defense chief April 23, 2014
      ABOARD A U.S. MILITARY AIRCRAFT (Reuters) - Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel said on Wednesday his first trip to Latin America as Pentagon chief would add "muscle and sinew" to growing North American defense ties and highlight the importance of helping partner nations improve their militaries.
    • Georgia governor signs gun carry rights expansion into law April 23, 2014
      ATLANTA (Reuters) - Georgia Governor Nathan Deal signed a broad expansion of gun carry rights into law on Wednesday, allowing legal gun owners to take weapons into bars, churches and government buildings under certain conditions.
    • California lawmakers, bruised by scandal, turn to ethics training April 23, 2014
      SACRAMENTO, California (Reuters) - California lawmakers, their reputation tarnished by fraud and corruption scandals, on Wednesday took a break from normal business to attend ethics training, the latest step by the state Senate to repair its image as elections loom.
    • U.S. Justice Department announces clemency review of drug offenders April 23, 2014
      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The U.S. Justice Department laid out new clemency guidelines on Wednesday that are expected to make thousands of drug offenders eligible for a reduction in the sentences they are currently serving.
  • RSS CNN.com – Africa

    • Luxury shoes made in Ghana April 15, 2014
      Fred Deegbe was standing outside a shop window five years ago, marveling at the shiny pair of wing-tip Oxfords he'd just bought, when he started wondering whether such beautiful designer shoes could ever be produced in his country, Ghana.
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      "It was like taking a big leap of faith."
    • 'Uncle Ebo' revives Ghanaian theater April 15, 2014
      African Voices meets James Ebo Whyte a passionate storyteller with a series of successful plays to his credit.
    • How medics saved lives at Westgate April 9, 2014
      When gunmen stormed into Nairobi's Westgate shopping mall, Abbas Gullet was one of the first emergency responders on the scene. As head of Kenya's Red Cross, he was in charge of coordinating services for people in need.
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      She started her business with just £100, lugging her beauty bag from door to door, but some 25 years later Grace Amey-Obeng has built a multi-million dollar cosmetics empire that's helping change the perception of beauty for many.
    • Africa's most endangered April 16, 2014
      Africa is home to much unique wildlife, but many of its iconic species are threatened. Find out more about its most endangered animals.
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      Zain Verjee visits Uganda's Bwindi Impenetrable National Park -- the home of half of the world's endangered mountain gorilla population.
    • Savannah from the sky March 13, 2014
      It's almost impossible for a photographer to find fresh visual perspectives these days. Brooklyn-based Zack Seckler had to travel to a different continent and strap into an ultra-light aircraft to find one. His Botswana series presents the country from between 50 and 500 feet, providing a unique and captivating view of the savannah.
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      No one knows where 77 abducted girls in Nigeria are -- and surprising still, no one's particularly shocked.
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      They are the world's largest primates and yet the constant threat of illegal poaching, deforestation and now human diseases mean that soon the world's mountain gorillas could be completely wiped out. Meet the woman trying to fix the situation before it's too late.
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      The Center for African Family Studies in Nairobi has teamed up with Kenyan artist Michael Soi to create eye-catching condom wrappers to promote safe sex and raise awareness about HIV/AIDS among young people.
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Buganda’s Indigenous Religion

Posted by African Press International on April 9, 2007

The Baganda believed in a spirit world beyond the one they could see, and this belief featured strongly in their lives, both at the personal level as well as in matters of state. The occupants of the spirit world can be considered to be on three levels.

At the top is a supreme creator, Katonda. The name, meaning creator of all things and Lord of Creation indicates that he was recognized to be superior to all, and was referred to as “the father of the gods’. There were three main shrines dedicated to Katonda at Namakwa, Buzu and Bukule, all in Kyaggwe. His priests came from the Njovu (Elephant) clan. However, little was known of this supreme god and he was not expected to intervene routinely in human affairs.
At the second level is Lubaale of whom there are more than two dozen. Lubaales were of major significance to the nation and the day to day life of the people. The word Lubaale was translated as “god” by early writers in English on Buganda but the histories of the Lubaales, which were well known to the Baganda, all tell of them having been humans who, having shown exceptional powers when alive, were venerated after death and whose spirits were expected to intercede favorably in national affairs when asked.

They are thus more like the Saints of Christian belief than “gods”. In this document, they will be referred to as Guardians.
The Guardians were the focus of the organized religious activity of the nation, being recognized and venerated by all. Even more important, they were the one institution which the King, otherwise almost an absolute ruler, could not ignore or disrespect. Before all major national events, such as coronations and wars, the oracles at the major temples were consulted and offerings were made.

For a King to ignore the pronouncements of the oracle or to desecrate a temple was a sure invitation to disaster. Each shrine (ekiggwa) was headed by a priest or priestess, the Mandwa, who, when the Guardian Spirit was upon him or her, also functioned as the oracle. Generally the office of Mandwa for a perticular temple was assigned to one clan, which would supply the priests and priestesses. Each Guardian had at least one temple, in which was kept a set of sacred drums and other ceremonial objects.

The building and upkeep of the temples were governed by very elaborate and exacting rituals.
The most popular Guardian was Mukasa, Guardian of the Lake. He had temples in his honor all over the country but the chief temple was on Bubembe island in Lake Victoria. To this temple the King would send an annual offering of cows and a request for prosperity and good harvests. Next to his temple was one to his wife, Nalwanga, to whom women would pray for fertility.

The other nationally renowned Guardian was Kibuuka of Mbaale. His legend tells that he was a general of such great prowess that it was said of him that he could fly like a bird over the battlefield. Killed in action in the time of Kabaka Nakibinge, his remains were enshrined at Mbaale ( now known as Mpigi) and he became the Guardian of War.

His temple was desecrated by the British and the contents, including his jawbone, were put on display in a museum in Cambridge. The Primary School at Mpigi is named Kibuuka Memorial in his honor, and was built at the site of his shrine. A listing of the more well known Guardians is
given in the following table:

The Guardians (Balubaale) of Buganda
Guardian Speciality   Main Shrine Remarks
Wanga . Unknown Fixed Sun and Moon in sky
Muwanga The Most Powerful Kiwanga, Kyaggwe Son of Wanga
Musisi Earthquakes Bukasa Island, Ssese .
Wannema Phyical Handicaps Bukasa Island, Ssese Son of Musisi
Wamala . Busundo, Ssingo Son of Musisi
Mukasa Good Health, Fertility, Wealth Bubembe Island, Ssese Son of Wannema
Kibuuka War Mbaale (Mpigi), Mawokota Son of Wannema
Nende War Bukeerere, Kyaggwe Son of Mukasa
Mirimu . Ndejje, Bulemeezi Son of Mukasa
Musoke . . Son of Mukasa
Kitinda Wealth, Long Life Kkoome Island Son of Musisi
Ggulu . None Had no priests
Walumbe Sickness, Death Ttanda, Ssingo Son of Ggulu
Kiwanuka Fertility, Thunder Mmengo, Kyaddondo Son of Ggulu
Nakayaga Fertility . Kiwanuka’s Wife
Namirembe . . Kiwanuka’s Wife
Nagaddya Marriage, Harvest Nkumba, Busiro Kibuuka’s Mother
Nalwoga . Nsazi Island Nagaddya’s Sister
Nanziri . . Mukasa’s Wife
Nabamba . Kirugu, Kyaggwe Came from Busoga
Lubanga . Bubiro, Kyaggwe Came from Buruli
Ddungu Game Hunting Mabira Forest Came from Bunyoro
Namalere Good Health Ssugu, Bukunja .
Nagawonye Rain, Crops Mubanda, Bulemeezi .
Kawaali Smallpox Kakooge, Busiro Son of King Ssuuna I
Kawagga . Buwagga, Kyaddondo Son of King Kateregga
Kawumpuli Plague Buyego, Kyaddondo Son of King Kayemba
Nabuzaana Obstetrics . Her priestesses were Banyoro

Of more immediate importance to the ordinary folk were the innumerable lesser spirits. These were mostly the departed ancestors (mizimu), but also included spirits that peopled mountains, rivers and forests, mostly benevolent but some known to be viciously harmful if not kept happy (misambwa). Rituals aimed at ensuring the goodwill of these spirits were part of everyday life. Every household contained a shrine to the family’s ancestors, usually a small basket to which small offerings of money and coffee beans were made regularly.

Major enterprises, such as the building of a house or the clearing of a piece of land, required a greater offering, maybe of a chicken or a goat. Again, this was usually a family effort with no outside help from any form of clergy. Prayers or offerings involving the shrine of a Lubaale generally indicated some extraordinary need, such as the start of a military campaign.

The Muganda praying for help always clearly understood that the assistance of the
spirits was but an aid to personal effort, or as the Baganda put it, “Lubaale mbeera, nga n’embiro kw’otadde” (pray for deliverance from danger, but start running too).

Every village recognised the presence of numerous local spirits, usually associated with a particular part of the local scenery, perhaps a forest, a stream or a python. These, as a rule, were unfriendly spirits, and the only duty one owed them was to avoid displeasing them.

This might require a small offering of food to be left at a particulr spot from time to time but generally simply meant keeping out f their way by obeying certain taboos. Wood and stream spirits, known as Misambwa, were known to bathe at certain times, no one would venture to the well at those hours. Similarly some tracts were off limits to gatheres of firewood. Lurid tales of the fate that befell transgressors are still told to this day.

The ancient Baganda were thus like the followers of major modern religions in honoring their gods and praying for their help. They differed, however in the relationship they saw between the gods and the rules governing ordinary behavior and morals.

To the philosophical question “Is murder wrong because God forbade it or did God forbid murder because it is wrong?” the Muganda would emphatically answer “the latter”. The nation had an elaborate and carefully observed code of conduct governing personal and family relationships, cleanliness, the crafts, warfare and government, a code which was observed not because the gods ordained it but because it was the right thing to do.

To this day the Muganda considers the statement “eyo ssi mpisa yaffe (that is not our custom)” a major censure.
A communal rather than divine basis for good behavior was useful in preserving the moral foundation of Buganda society, especially in the 19th century when the prestige and influence of the Guardians waned as that of the Kabaka grew.

Thus by the end the reign of Mutesa I in 1884 the formal influence of the Guardians in national matters was gone, within another generation Christianity and Islam would have totally supplanted them.

Traditional mores were more resilient, and only began to change significantly after 1945, especially in areas of family relationship. In the last generation the new order represented by imported religions and political systems has been found to be wanting, not only in the poor cohesiveness and function of the state but even in the personal conduct of religious and political leaders.

Thus the traditional ways are once again treated with respect, even to the extent that the traditional terms for such things as a shrine (ekiggwa) or a prayer (okusamira) are now
being used to describe Christian churches and services. Previously they were terms of abuse used to describe “pagans”. What the final equilibrium will be between tradition and the now dominant Christianity and Islam only time will tell.

By Ham Mukasa
www.hgmconsult.com
www.freewebs.com/hammukasa-buganda
www.hammukasafoundation.com

Published by African Press in Norway, apn, africanpress@chello.no tel +47 932 99 739 or +47 6300 2525

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